Literature and Terrorism In an age of terror, how does literature help us transcend our reality, lend perspective to our confusion by pulling us into the past and other cultures, and give expression to our anguish and fear through catharsis? They survived it; so can we. In this course we will define terrorism the way the Arabs define it, as any organized violence, by an individual, group or state, legitimate or illegitimate, against a civilian population, either intentional or unintentional. Black Water is both a personal and stylistic meditation on terror as well as an indirect indictment of the terror a powerful political leader has over an innocent civilian.
There are many theories on how these processes work, ranging from rational choice approaches to arguments influenced by Marxism.
In this post, I will introduce you to one influential approach, called discourse theory. What this theory is about, and what a discourse actually is, is not always easy to understand: This post is meant to help you if you are new to the field and want to get your bearings.
I will introduce several definitions of discourse, and will discuss how they relate to various theoretical concepts. In the process, you will meet the key founder of this approach, Michel Foucault, as well as important researchers who work in the field. And of course I will also share my own views on discourse theory with you.
If you are simply looking for a quick overview of the topic, then this video introduction may be useful to you.
The third-person point of view is more common in reports, research papers, critiques, biography, history, and traditional journalistic essays. This again relates to the fact that the author can, with the third-person POV, create a formal distance, a kind of objectivity, appropriate in putting up arguments or presenting a case. Writing in first person means writing from the author’s point of view or perspective. This point of view is used for autobiographical writing as well as narrative. This point of view is used for autobiographical writing as well as narrative. May 08, · Picture him as a young man, standing on the waterfront in North Williamsburg, at a polling site, on Sept. 11, , which was Election Day in .
However, to scholars, discourse is far more than this. Discourse can encompass all forms of communication. This is a controversial thing to assume, particularly if you are a scientific realist who is interested in exploring the natural world and finding facts through scientific tools.
Personally, I do not think that discourse theory is anti-scientific, and in fact think that there are many parallels to cognitive science, but that is a discussion for another post. In the side-box, you can see how some of the leading experts explain discourse.
Take a look at these different definitions. What different discourse theories have in common In general, discourse theory is concerned with human expressions, often in the form of language.
It highlights how such expressions are linked to human knowledge. A shared argument is that the things people say or write draw from a pool of generally accepted knowledge in a society, while at the same time feeding back into society to shape or reinforce such knowledge.
What a society therefore holds to be true changes over time, depending on the ideas that members of a society exchange, and on the way in which such exchange happens. Certain persons may be in a particularly strong position to define what is true, while others may be excluded from the discussion.
For instance, think about the different status that health advice might have when it comes from an experienced, male medical doctor compared to when it comes from your grandmother. Even though you may not know the doctor very well, your view of his social status, of his training, and of his gender all shape how you make sense of his advice.
In other words, discourse theory is concerned with questions of power, and often with questions of institutional hierarchies. The father of discourse theory: Michel Foucault Many of the commonalities I have listed above go back to the most famous discourse theorist: Foucault, to put it simply, was convinced that the world we live in is structured by knowledge, or in other words: He questioned how objective the truths these disciplines produce actually are.
This is why his early work is often referred to as structuralist.
He shifted his emphasis from the objects of social interaction to the subjects. Some controversies in discourse theory Despite many common concerns, researchers of discourse have very different views on what exactly discourse is, how precisely it works, and what its impact might be.
Also, their work may at times draw from other approaches that analyze textual sources, such as literary theory, theories of history, or different branches of linguistics, while at other times combining detailed language analyses with broad political concerns in ways that are at odds with these disciplines.
If you are planning to conduct discourse analyses, then you should be aware of the controversies and their implications. They could have a profound impact on how you set up your own research project. Is discourse primarily language? In a discourse analysis, you will have to decide how important you think the written and spoken word is.
While most discourse analysts admit that discourse can play out in various forms of communication, their focus is overwhelmingly on language.
This is particularly true for scholars who work in the Anglo-Saxon tradition of critical discourse analysis or: Another text-based approach is called political discourse analysis, and has been championed by Paul Chilton If you are interested in the linguistic aspects of discourse, then these approaches will likely be very useful.
Very often, these approaches link to semioticswhich is the study of how different signs stand for specific objects. If you are interested in sociological work or broader communication practices, then such social semiotics might be a way forward.
Discourse theorists disagree on which parts of our world are real. In other words, they take different ontological stances. Extreme constructivists argue that all human knowledge and experience is socially constructed, and that there is no reality beyond discourse Potter Yet others are interested mainly in the socio-economic realities that discourse shapes: In this view, discourse analysts have a moral obligation to emancipate people by revealing systemic ideological shackles that reflect class affiliations.As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria.
Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from caninariojana.com You probably know what it means to write in the first person, but you may not be as confident about using the second- or third-person point of view.
Today we’re going to focus on each of these three points of view. In grammatical terms, first person, second person, and third person refer to personal pronouns. Each “person” has a different . Sep 23, · Writing in the first person can be a fun challenge, allowing you to explore a first person point of view on the page.
You may write in the first person in a short story, novel, or opinion piece. Creating an effective first person narrative requires skill and consistency as well as a thorough revision of the writing once it is done%(16).
O level English Essay Topics. FET SYSTEM is also providing essays for these topics. So just write your e-mail addresss on the comment box below and we will send the essays on you e-mail address for free.
Writing in first person means writing from the author’s point of view or perspective. This point of view is used for autobiographical writing as well as narrative. This point of view is used for autobiographical writing as well as narrative. From: Michael H.
Hart, The A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History, ; pages While this book was being written, many friends and associates of the author suggested suggested the names of various historical figures who they felt might reasonably be included in .