Dominium maris baltici Between the years of andSweden created a Baltic empire centred on the Gulf of Finland and comprising the provinces of KareliaIngriaEstoniaand Livonia. During the same period Sweden conquered Danish and Norwegian provinces north of the Sound ; These victories may be ascribed to a well-trained army, which despite its comparatively small size, was far more professional than most continental armies, and also to a modernization of administration both civilian and military in the course of the 17th century, which enabled the monarchy to harness the resources of the country and its empire in an effective way. Fighting in the field, the Swedish army which during the Thirty Years' War contained more German and Scottish mercenaries than ethnic Swedes, but was administered by the Swedish Crown  was able, in particular, to make quick, sustained marches across large tracts of land and to maintain a high rate of small arms fire due to proficient military drill.
The Other Civil War A sheriff in the Hudson River Valley near Albany, New York, about to go into the hills in the fall of to collect back rents from tenants on the enormous Rensselaer estate, was handed a letter: The tenants now assume the right of doing to their landlord as he has for a long time done with them, viz: You need not think this to be children's play I would not pledge for your safe return.
When a deputy arrived in the farming area with writs demanding the rent, farmers suddenly appeared, assembled by the blowing of tin horns. They seized his writs and burned them.
That December, a sheriff and a mounted posse of five hundred rode into the farm country, but found themselves in the midst of shrieking tin horns, eighteen hundred farmers blocking their path, six hundred more blocking their rear, all mounted, armed with pitchforks and clubs.
The sheriff and his posse turned back, the rear guard parting to let them through. It was a protest against the patroonship system, which went back to the s when the Dutch ruled New York, a system where as Christman describes it "a few families, intricately intermarried, controlled the destinies of three hundred thousand people and ruled in almost kingly splendor near two million acres of land.
The landowner, as one sympathizer of the tenants put it, could "swill his wine, loll on his cushions, fill his life with society, food, and culture, and ride his barouche and five saddle horses along the beautiful river valley and up to the backdrop of the mountain.
The economic crisis of had filled the area with unemployed seeking land, on top of the layoffs accompanying the completion of the Erie Canal, after the first wave of railroad building ended. That summer the tenants resolved: Smith Boughton, a country doctor on horseback; Ainge Devyr, a revolutionary Irishman.
Devyr had seen monopoly of land and industry bring misery to the slumdwellers of London, Liverpool, and Glasgow, had agitated for change, had been arrested for sedition, and fled to America. He was invited to address a Fourth of July rally of farmers in Rensselaerville, where he warned his listeners: They agreed on calico Indian costumes, symbol of the Boston Tea Party and recalling original ownership of the soil.
The tin horn represented an Indian call to arms. Soon ten thousand men were trained and ready. Organizing went on in county after county, in dozens of towns along the Hudson. Sheriffs and deputy sheriffs trying to serve writs on farmers were surrounded by calico-clad riders who had been summoned by tin horns sounding in the countryside-then tarred and feathered.
The New York Herald, once sympathetic, now deplored "the insurrectionary spirit of the mountaineers. A man sent onto a tenant's land to gather wood for the landlord was killed. A farm boy was killed mysteriously, no one knew by whom, but Dr.
The governor ordered artillerymen into action, and a company of cavalry came up from New York City. Petitions for an antirent bill, signed by 25, tenants, were put before the legislature in The bill was defeated. A kind of guerrilla war resumed in the country, between bands of "Indians" and sheriffs' posses.
Boughton was kept in jail seven months, four and a half months of that in heavy irons, before being released on bail. Fourth of July meetings in attended by thousands of farmers pledged continued resistance.
Similar attempts to sell livestock for rent payments were thwarted, again and again. The governor sent three hundred troops in, declaring a state of rebellion existed, and soon almost a hundred Anti-Renters were in jail.Losing the War. Man is a bubble, and all the world is a stormJeremy Taylor, Holy Dying () My father owned a gorgeous porcelain tiger about half the size of a house cat.
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