History of commercial tobacco in the United States Tobacco is a natural plant once classified as an herb with healing properties among the Indian Doctors in The United States of America.
Tobacco in the form of leaf, snuff, chew, smoking tobacco, cigars, and factory-made cigarettes has often been called the United States ' oldest industry.
Since its introduction to Europeans by American Indians, no other agricultural crop has been more thoroughly entwined with the history of the United States than the growing, processing, and manufacturing of tobacco.
In addition, no one product has enjoyed deeper ties to the colonization of the New World and to the expansion of international trade between the New World and Europe, Asia, and the Middle East over the last four centuries.
The prospect of farming tobacco and selling it to England brought the earliest British colonists to Virginia and Maryland, and at the end of the twentieth century U.
For many centuries tobacco has been identified with the New World, especially the United States. In the form of the mass-produced cigarette, U.
Indeed, students of the industry have argued that the advent of machine-made cigarettes in the s helped inaugurate in the United States the modern era of mass consumer products, mass advertising and promotion, and the professionally managed modern corporation.
However, the last half of the twentieth century saw the U. In response, the industry aggressively pursued expanding into markets in Asia, Eastern Europeand Africa, prompting the World Health Organization to accuse tobacco manufacturers of fomenting a tobacco epidemic.
Equally worrisome for the industry, at century's end the growth of class-action lawsuits, the Smoking hazards tobacco cultivation in colonial of documents revealing corporate manipulation of the political and legal process and the willful distortion and suppression of scientific findings, and the rise of government antitobacco measures further clouded the future of the domestic tobacco market.
Cigarette makers faced the prospect of being demoted to the status of a rogue industry in the eyes of U.
Production and Consumption Most modern tobacco consumption derives from Nicotiana tabacum, which is a species of nightshade plant. The arrival of Europeans in the New World introduced them to tobacco, and by the early seventeenth century commercial tobacco became a driving force of colonization in North America and the Caribbean.
The Jamestown colony in Virginia owed its very survival to tobacco. A cash crop requiring very intensive labor from planting to harvesting to curing, its cultivation created a demand for conscripted labor, first in the form of indentured European servants on family farms and soon afterward in the form of African slave labor on large landholdings.
Two types of tobacco leaf were grown, principally for pipe smoking and, later on, snuff. They were both dark varieties: In England, demand for tobacco rapidly grew and by the Chesapeake colonies exportedpounds annually to England, procuring substantial tax revenues for the state, which overcame early Crown hostility to tobacco cultivation and consumption.
It also extended to two other regions in which cigar Cuban leaf cultivation would come to dominate in the nineteenth century: In exports of raw leaf from the British Chesapeake colonies reached 37 million pounds and by the outbreak of the American Revolution in upward of million pounds.
At the end of the eighteenth century, the main producers of tobacco were the United States, Brazil, and Cuba. After a decline following the American RevolutionU. Production then rose sharply to million pounds in and, after a drop due to the Civil Warresumed its growth, averaging million pounds in throughof which one-half was consumed domestically.
From to the s, U. Throughout most of their history, Americans overall and men in particular remained the heaviest consumers of tobacco worldwide, principally in the form of chewing and smoking tobacco.
Europeans consumed tobacco by smoking it in clay pipes until the eighteenth century, when manufactured snuff became dominant starting in Spain. While chewing tobacco was rare in Europe, it was quite popular in the United States among men and remained so up to the early twentieth century.
Pipe smoking was also popular among men and some women in the nineteenth century Women also used snuff. It was taken by New York society women and by women of all classes in the South.
In Europe, pipe smoking made a comeback in the nineteenth century at the expense of snuff, but was soon forced to accommodate the new vogues for cigar and cigarette smoking popular both there and in North America. These shifts in consumption patterns stemmed in part from the development in the nineteenth century of new, lighter leaves of the bright and the burley varieties, which were more suitable for chewing and cigarette smoking and competed with the dark leaf grown in Virginia and Maryland.
By the end of the nineteenth century, the bulk of U. Industrializing Tobacco and the Rise of the Cigarette Until tobacco manufacturing proper was largely carried out in Europe.
New York, a center of snuff production, was the exception. Manufacturing of tobacco also thrived among planters who prepared tobacco for chew. After the Civil Warthe introduction of steam-powered shredding and cigarette machines and pressures stemming from the rise of national markets led to the concentration of tobacco manufacturing in that sector.
Cigar manufacturing underwent a similar evolution somewhat later. Cigars first became popular in the United States after the Mexican-American Warand their manufacture was fairly dispersed in cigar leaf-growing regions. In the United States, the convenience and simplicity of smoking cigarettes made from the bright variety of tobacco was discovered by Union and Confederate troops alike during the Civil War.
Ready-made cigarettes using mixtures of bright and burley tobacco allowed U. The growth of the U. With this growth arose new aggressive methods of packaging striking colors, designs, logos, brand namespromoting gifts, picture cards, free samples, discounts and rebates to jobbers, retailers, etc.
In James Bonsack patented a new cigarette-making machine that turned out overcigarettes per day. Until then, factory workers rolled up to 3, cigarettes a day.Feb 11, · Tobacco has been smoked in pipes, cigars, and cigarettes, and also chewed and taken as snuff Pipe smoking was the most prevalent form of tobacco consumption in the colonial period, although in the late s taking snuff became popular among the elite who were emulating the European aristocracies.
Smoking Is Hazardous to Your Health. Smoking is Hazardous to Your Health Hi I'm here today to tell you the dangers of smoking. Smoking Hazards: Tobacco Cultivation in Colonial America. Tobacco was a main crop in colonial America that helped stabilize the economy (Cotton 1).
Despite the fact that tobacco took the place of the 1, Words | 8 /5(1). Early Cultivation of Tobacco. In the first few years of tobacco cultivation in the colonies, the plants were simply covered with hay and left in the field to cure or "sweat." This method was abandoned after , when regulations prohibited the use of valuable potential animal food for such purposes.
Smoking Hazards: Tobacco Cultivation in Colonial America Tobacco was a main crop in colonial America that helped stabilize the economy (Cotton 1). Despite the fact that tobacco took the place of the. Smoking Hazards: Tobacco Cultivation In Colonial America Essay Words | 8 Pages.
Tobacco was a main crop in colonial America that helped stabilize the economy (Cotton 1). The tobacco industry ’ s main tobacco products are smoking tobacco (including cigarettes, cigars, and pipe tobacco), chewing tobacco, and snuff. The use of cigarettes as a means of consuming tobacco is relatively recent, beginning around the start of the twentieth century.