Even before the war was over, scholars in the North and South began to analyze and interpret the reasons behind the bloodshed.
The secession of southern states hastened the outbreak of the Civil War Secession had been seriously mentioned as a political option at least as far back as the Missouri crisis ofand threats to disrupt the Union occurred in every sectional crisis from the nullification era onward.
White Georgians, along with other white southerners, disagreed over whether secession was a constitutional right embodied in the national compact that grew out of the Constitutional Convention or a natural right of revolution arising from the inherent power of the people to form and abolish governments.
But in a practical sense this distinction mattered less than the fact that secession was widely recognized as a legitimate remedy for southern grievances.
As sectional strife over slavery intensified in the mid-nineteenth century, some southern agitators pressed for immediate secession. The Georgia Platforma response to the Compromise ofaccepted the terms of the unpopular Compromise but also satisfied secessionists by declaring that further assaults on slavery in the South or in future states would be unacceptable.
Thus, when Abraham Lincoln, the candidate of the antislavery, northern Republican Party, won the presidential election, states in the lower South moved quickly to call state conventions to consider secession. Georgia's state legislature set January 2,as the election date for a state conventionwhich was to meet on January Opposing camps formed rapidly in the campaign for the election of county delegates to the state convention.
CobbJoseph E. Constitution and provided clear evidence that a tyrannical northern majority intended to trample on southern rights and ultimately abolish slavery.
Honor and safety depended, immediate secessionists argued, on severing ties with the Union as quickly and completely as possible, to protect the South from its enemies and promote southern unity.
Immediate secessionists had the advantage of a decisive plan of action and a strong set of allies in neighboring Deep South states—South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, and Alabama would secede before Georgia's state convention even met.
Cooperationists agreed that the South faced great dangers and that Republicans must provide strong guarantees to protect slavery and southern rights if Georgia were to remain in the Union. In other words, cooperationists differed from immediate secessionists more in tactics than in underlying principles.
Cooperationist plans for delay and deliberation typically involved holding a convention of southern states to frame ultimatums that would extract concessions from the Republican Party.
The secession of nearby states, however, made the logic of cooperationist proposals suspect and weakened their resolve; they were far less active during the campaign than their immediate secessionist counterparts. White Georgians spoke very clearly on the issues at stake in A series of debates was held in the state capital of Milledgevilleand county conventions denounced northern aggression; reiterated familiar claims regarding southern rights to expand slavery into the territories; vigorously defended southern honor; conjured up the horrors of abolitionism, race war, and racial amalgamation; and insisted upon security for the South's peculiar institution.
Liberty and freedom, for the white male voters of Georgia, meant preserving their right to hold slaves and to rule their family households without interference from outside forces, most especially from the federal government, which in their view had fallen into the hands of abolitionist fanatics.
Republican and northern hostility to slavery was cited as the sole compelling reason for contemplating secession, and white Georgians agreed that what they interpreted as repeated and unprovoked assaults upon slavery must cease or the Union must be dissolved.
The exact results of the January 2 election, in terms of total votes cast for each side statewide, will probably never be known: Although the unofficial count released—not until April—by Governor Joseph E. Brown showed a lopsided victory for the immediate secessionists, the best evidence indicates that they won, at best, a tiny majority of the ballots cast, 44, to 41,Three Supreme Court justices, one famous president, a bloody war, and the language of a modern pledge of allegiance offer conclusive proof that secession, while an entertaining philosophical.
Final post of my series showing how slavery caused the Civil War, and we start with secession. The whole south didn’t leave at once. It was the seven states of the lower south—South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas—that seceded almost instantaneously after they heard Lincoln won the election.
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Not only were the concepts of the Union, secession, and republican duty the same, but the verbiage was almost identical, to the extent that one could argue that Lincoln at the time of the Civil War merely rearranged clauses and added synonyms to commonly repeated phrases.
No office, civil or military, created by this State, or under authority of its laws, in force on the eleventh day of January, A. D., , and no officer lawfully exercising the powers or duties of such office, is affected by said Ordinance of Secession, except the offices of the members of the House or Representatives and of the Senators of.
Aug 02, · Rhett, the South Carolina Fire-Eater who led the secession movement into the Civil War and hoped to be the first Governor of an independent SC, was a supporter of secession in his first campaign for public office, which was about , IIRR, when he was still going by the name of Smith.