Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, philosophy, art, music, politics, science, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, and searched for realism and human emotion in art. It is in their new focus on literary and historical texts that Renaissance scholars differed so markedly from the medieval scholars of the Renaissance of the 12th centurywho had focused on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural sciences, philosophy and mathematics, rather than on such cultural texts. Portrait of a Young Woman c.
The Middle Ages and the Renaissance The role of the European monasteries As European monastic communities were set up from as early as the 2nd century adbooks were found to be essential to the spiritual life.
The rule laid down for observance by several monastic orders enjoined the use of books: Scriptoriathe places where manuscripts were copied out, were a common feature of the monasteries—again, especially in those of the Benedictine order, where there was a strict obligation to preserve manuscripts by copying them.
Rules were laid down for the use of books, and curses invoked against any person who made off with them. Books were, however, lent to other monasteries and even to the secular public against security.
In this sense, the monasteries to some extent performed the function of public libraries. Thomas Aquinas, and Roger Baconand possibly some secular literature represented by the Roman poets Virgil and Horace and the orator Cicero.
The new learning In Europe the libraries of the newly founded universities—along with those of the monasteries—were the main centres for the study of books until the late Middle Ages; books were Renaissance and middle ages and beyond the means of all but a few wealthy people.
The 13th, 14th, and 15th centuries, however, saw the development of private book collections. Italian humanists, such as Petrarch and Giovanni Boccacciosearched for and copied manuscripts of classical writings such as those of Cicero and Tacitus to establish their scholarly libraries.
Notable collections of books were made outside Italy, too though Florence remained the centre of the rising book trade: The rich library of Lorenzo the Magnificentgrandson of Cosimo and an even greater patron of learning and the arts, also became a public library. It was opened in in a fine building designed by Michelangelo and still exists as the Biblioteca Laurenziana though in it was amalgamated with the Marciana to form the Biblioteca Medicea-Laurenziana [Medicean- Laurentian Library].
Many other princely libraries were formed at this time, including that of Matthias I Matthias Corvinus of Hungary and the library of the Escorial in Madrid foundedbased on the collections of Philip II. The Vatican library also dates its foundation from this time. Effects of the Reformation and religious wars In England the end of the monastic libraries came in —40, when the religious houses were suppressed by Henry VIII and their treasures dispersed.
No organized steps were taken to preserve their libraries. Even more wholesale destruction came in The losses were incalculable. Elsewhere in Europe, the period of the Reformation also saw many of the contents of monastic libraries destroyed, especially in Germany and the northern countries.
The Reformation leader Martin Lutherhowever, did himself passionately believe in the value of libraries, and in a letter of to all German towns he insisted that neither pains nor money should be spared in setting up libraries.
As a consequence, many town libraries in Germany, including those at Hamburg and Augsburgdate from this time. In Denmark, similarly, some books from the churches and monasteries were incorporated with the new university library, though many were destroyed. The Bibliotheca Palatina at the University of Heidelberg foundedfor example, was taken as the spoil of war by Maximilian I of Bavaria, who offered it to Pope Gregory XV in ; and Gustavus Adolphus sent whole libraries to Sweden, most of them to swell the library of the University of Uppsala, which he had founded in The collections of the Royal Library in Stockholm were similarly enriched by the war booty that fell to Sweden during the reigns of Queen Christina and Charles X.
In France, Italy, southern Germany, and Austria, where the Roman Catholic faith remained unshaken, the old libraries remained and were supplemented by new ones set up for educational purposes by the Society of Jesus the Jesuits.
Scholars donated their personal collections to mosques, which usually kept only the religious books, sometimes setting up an adjunct library in which the books of a more secular nature were placed.
These secular collections were open to the public. Apart from the libraries associated with mosques, there were many large collections housed in palaces and the homes of the wealthy. Typical private and public collections usually included regional histories and works of geography, travel, astrology, and alchemy.The Renaissance (UK: / r ɪ ˈ n eɪ s ən s /, US: / r ɛ n ə ˈ s ɑː n s /) is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th caninariojana.com is an extension of the Middle Ages, and is bridged by the Age of Enlightenment to modern caninariojana.com grew in fragments, with the very first traces found seemingly in Italy, coming to cover much of Europe, for some scholars.
The middle-class population also had leisure time to spend on education and entertainment. In fact, education was essential for many middle-class professions.
“Renaissance” literally means “awakening” or “rebirth.” It was a European cultural movement between the 14th and the 16th centuries. The Middle Ages was a period from the 5th to 16th centuries.
Both eras were remarkably different when compared. The Renaissance was a cultural movement. This volume is both a restatement of current interpretations of sea power in the middle ages and the Renaissance and a general introduction to naval and maritime history over four and a half centuries.
WOMEN'S HAIR AT THE MIDDLE AGES: During the first period of the Medieval era, ranging from the fifth to the eleventh century, women usually had long hair, extended to knee length or sometimes, below, and also with two long braids at the sides of the head or tied in a chignon.
The Middle Ages and the Renaissance The role of the European monasteries. As European monastic communities were set up (from as early as the 2nd century ad), books were found to be essential to the spiritual caninariojana.com rule laid down for observance by several monastic orders enjoined the use of books: that of the Benedictine order, especially, recognized the importance of reading and study.