Galaxy S3 wins the battle but as you can see its a marginal victory.
This allows maximum capacity, because the consumer wants nothing less than optimal runtime. Industry, on the other hand, is more concerned about longevity and may choose lower voltage thresholds. Satellites and electric vehicles are such examples. For safety reasons, many lithium-ions cannot exceed 4.
Some NMC are the exception.
While a higher voltage boosts capacity, exceeding the voltage shortens service life and compromises safety. Figure 5 demonstrates cycle count as a function of charge voltage.
Effects on cycle life at elevated charge voltages. Higher charge voltages boost capacity but lowers cycle life and compromises safety.
The Li-ion charger turns off the charge current and the battery voltage reverts to a more natural level. This is like relaxing the muscles after a strenuous exercise. Charging Lithium-ion Figure 6 illustrates dynamic stress tests DST reflecting capacity loss when cycling Li-ion at various charge and discharge bandwidths.
The largest capacity loss occurs when discharging a fully charged Li-ion to 25 percent SoC black ; the loss would be higher if fully discharged. Cycling between 85 and 25 percent green provides a longer service life than charging to percent and discharging to 50 percent dark blue.
The smallest capacity loss is attained by charging Li-ion to 75 percent and discharging to 65 percent. This, however, does not fully utilize the battery. High voltages and exposure to elevated temperature is said to degrade the battery quicker than cycling under normal condition.
Nissan Leaf case Figure 6: Capacity loss as a function of charge and discharge bandwidth. Mobile phone, drone, etc.
No clear explanations are available from the sources other than assuming differences in battery quality and test methods.
Variances in low-cost consumer and durable industrial grades may also play a role. Only a full cycle provides the specified energy of a battery. Mobile phones are consumer goods that utilize the full energy of a battery. See Why Mobile Phone Batteries do not last as long as an EV Battery Figure 7 extrapolates the data from Figure 6 to expand the predicted cycle life of Li-ion by using an extrapolation program that assumes linear decay of battery capacity with progressive cycling.
For unknown reasons, real-life expectancy tends to be lower than in simulated modeling. Cycling Performance Figure 7: Predictive modeling of battery life by extrapolation. Li-ion batteries are charged to three different SoC levels and the cycle life modelled. Limiting the charge range prolongs battery life but decreases energy delivered.
This reflects in increased weight and higher initial cost. With permission to use. Battery manufacturers often specify the cycle life of a battery with an 80 DoD.
This is practical because batteries should retain some reserve before charge under normal use. Lab tests often get numbers that are not attainable in the field.
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