Objectives Understand the basics of sexually transmitted diseases including types of infections, symptoms, and treatments Appreciate the importance of minimizing risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases Discuss the ethical questions raised by the real-life practice of expedited therapy Curriculum Integration Ideas This brief may be used in life science and health classes during units for topics including: Human reproduction Sexually transmitted diseases and prevention strategies Public policy discussions on physician practice 2. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Sexually transmitted diseases STDs are a real and unfortunate result of unsafe sexual practices. They can be transmitted through oral, vaginal, or anal intercourse.
Natsal-3 is a probability sample of 15 adults aged 16—74 years in Britain for which survey fieldwork started in It follows previous Natsal surveys in and In addition, Natsal-3 employs urine-based testing to estimate prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, human papillomavirus HPVHIV and Mycoplasma genitalium in a subgroup of respondents aged 16—44 years.
Benefits of biological testing in population-based research Linking biological information to behavioural and demographic data can strengthen population-based research.
For example, inNatsal-2 measured urinary C trachomatis prevalence, which informed the decision to extend national screening to men.
Biomarkers are not subject to reporting bias and lend considerable weight to the scientific reliability and precision of data, and may be used to validate self-reporting.
An ethical framework for biological testing in population-based research Biological testing in population-based research also raises important ethical considerations, for which the bioethical principles autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justiceset out by Beauchamp and Childress, provide a framework.
This is more complex because there may be no direct benefits for respondents in population-based surveys, but rather indirect societal benefits. International guidelines for HIV testing have distinguished between unlinked anonymous testing UAwhere results are irreversibly unlinked from the person tested, and linked testing, where results may or may not be returned.
In designing Natsal-3, the decision to return STI results or not was an ethical concern because harm to respondents and their sexual partners might be avoided by returning results for treatable infections.
Full disclosure is also consistent with upholding respect for respondents, and includes those wishing to participate only where results are returned. Methods We undertook an extensive development phase to agree and test the acceptability and feasibility of STI testing in Natsal The ethical principles described above informed our initial approach during the study funding process, and this was endorsed via independent peer review.
The approach was submitted to a NHS research ethics committee REC before piloting of the whole survey was undertaken in 23 postcode sectors across Great Britain. Within each sector, 25 addresses were randomly selected to yield a total sample of addresses, of which were residential with English-speaking and eligible occupants aged 16—74 years.
Interviews took place between March and May The response rate was For C trachomatis, there is now widespread testing in the community, and for young people sincea national screening programme, such that an estimated Under study conditions some loss in sensitivity is expected, due to limitations on the specimen type and the need to transport, freeze and batch test samples, which may result in clinically unacceptable delays.
The standard of diagnostic accuracy is a concern for all respondents. For example, a null or negative result feedback might result in undue reassurance and be without the health education messages that can be delivered when this occurs in a clinical setting.
Providing STI test results, where the prevalence and therefore positive predictive values may be low raises the possibility of false positives, which would also cause harm through undue concern table 1. Results with unknown clinical and public health implications For HPV and M genitalium, the clinical and public health implications currently remain uncertain, such that a positive result may not require specific management, treatment or partner notification and may cause unnecessary and unethical distress table 1.
A consistent approach supports effective communication Providing results for some STIs, but not others, may be misinterpreted in that respondents may wrongly assume the results to apply to all STIs. A thorough understanding of the study design is a prerequisite for obtaining informed consent from respondents, and we argued that a uniform approach to test results is easier to communicate, both for interviewers to explain and for respondents to understand.Testing of biological samples in epidemiological research raises important ethical questions.1 The issues are particularly complex when applied to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) because of the stigma associated with diagnosis and the importance of confidentiality.2 Researchers are also faced with the decision of whether and when to.
Testing of biological samples in epidemiological research raises important ethical questions. 1 The issues are particularly complex when applied to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) because of the stigma associated with diagnosis and the importance of confidentiality.
2 Researchers are also faced with the decision of whether and when to. II/ WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Sexually transmitted infections in adolescence. (Issues in adolescent health and development) 1.
Adolescent 2. Testing of biological samples in epidemiological research raises important ethical questions.1 The issues are particularly complex when applied to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) because of the stigma associated with diagnosis and the importance of confidentiality.2 Researchers are also faced with the decision of whether and when to.
Meanwhile, barrier methods of contraception are hailed as the answer to international problems such as AIDS and other Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). Together, both methods allow individuals to exert full control over their reproductive lives.
More than 1 million sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are acquired every day worldwide. Each year, there are an estimated million new infections with 1 of 4 STIs: chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and trichomoniasis. More than million people are estimated to .