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PHELAN This handbook describes the ways in which society shapes the mental health of its members and further shapes the hves of those who have been identified as mentally ill. The terms mental health and mental illness encompass a broad collection of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral phenomena.
Mental illness includes, for example, the experiences of a person who speaks to a companion whom no one else can see; someone who sits silently in her room, alone, eating little and sleeping less, contemplating death; a person suddenly overwhelmed with intense anxiety for no apparent reason; an individual whose consumption of alcohol makes it difficult for him to hold a job or maintain friendships; the person who is frequently sick with no identifiable physiological disease; and, someone who lies even when the truth would be personally advantageous and feels no remorse when others are injured by his actions.
Although the classification of these states as "illness" has been questioned, the very use of the term mental health in the title of this handbook and in the designation of the sponsoring section of the American Sociological Association reflects widespread acceptance of this perspective among sociologists.
Aneshensel and Jo C. Phelan several disciplines, each contributing a distinctive viewpoint. Psychiatry brings intraindividual considerations to the forefront, for example, whereas cross-cultural variations occupy this position in anthropology.
This volume seeks to articulate a distinctively sociological orientation. This is a fool's errand insofar as there is not one but several sociological perspectives, each sharing features with those of other disciplines. Moreover, it is intellectually more fashionable to call for multidisciplinary perspectives.
Nevertheless, we have undertaken this task out of a conviction that social arrangements and processes are fundamental to understanding the causes of mental illness and its consequences.
This assertion rests first and foremost on a foundation of empirical research demonstrating repeatedly and convincingly that mental disorders are not randomly distributed throughout society, but tend to cluster more densely within some social strata than others.
Much of this volume is dedicated to describing and explaining these distributions. Here it suffices to note that a person's chance of developing and maintaining a healthy mental state throughout the life course is influenced by his or her social status, for example, by gender, race or ethnicity, and socioeconomic status SES.
These characteristics also influence the ways in which disorder is likely to be experienced and expressed, for example, as depression versus alcoholism. Thus, social variation in the prevalence of disorder demonstrates incontrovertibly that some aspects of mental illness are social in origin. The evidence concerning social consequences is equally compelling.
Being identified as mentally ill is itself a social transformation. One's identity is altered, often irrevocably, to include what is generally regarded as a socially undesirable and stigmatizing attribute.
This transformation has profound repercussions for one's subsequent social relationships. For example, after people recover from depression, their husbands and wives often remain apprehensive about the fiiture and fear relapse, foreboding that may become self-fialfiUing prophecy Coyne et al.
Few seek treatment; involuntary commitment is even less common. Each of these outcomes is influenced by the person's social characteristics. Social characteristics also shape interactions with the professions and institutions that treat those who are mentally ill. In addition, sociocultural factors shape ideas about how disorder can be amehorated and the means to achieve this end, for example, through psychotherapeutic or psychopharmaceutical treatment.
Mental illness is a fertile field for sociological inquiry, then, because social characteristics and processes are implicated in both the etiology of disorder and in its consequences.
The characteristics that have been most important to sociological inquiry have been those that signify status within stratified social systems, including SES, gender, age, and race or ethnicity.
Also attracting considerable sociological attention are characteristics that reflect the occupancy of major social roles, especially marriage, parenting, and employment. Role- The Sociology of Mental Health 5 related research has also examined the mental health impact of entrances into and exits from social roles, as well as the quality of experience within roles, especially their capacity to generate stress or provide support.
The remainder of this chapter introduces three substantive areas that are of particular interest to the sociology of mental health.
The first concerns the socially constructed nature of mental illness. The second and third areas deal, respectively, with the social antecedents and consequences of mental health.
We then conclude the chapter with an overview of the remainder of the text. The very concept of mental illness is of profound sociological interest, because there is considerable sociocultural variation in how mental illness is manifest and imderstood, both across societies and within the various strata comprising a given society.
In the extreme, sociologists disagree over whether mental illness exists as anything other than a social construction manufactured primarily by the institution of psychiatry Scheff, The importance of relativity, subjectivity, and frame of reference can be seen in Davidson and Layder'spp.
What absolute, external criteria could it use to define madness? Then all those who have recently been bereaved or suffered some other tragedy would be classified insane, along with countless others who live lives of quiet despair brought about by poverty, injustice, racism, war, famine and disease.
Cruelty and brutality are not the exclusive property of mad people, but are regularly practiced in many of our most cherished institutions; auditory and visual hallucinations are not considered untoward in the feverish, the religious fanatic, the psychic or the drug user; no therapeutic intervention has been designed to "cure" the grandiose selfimportance of statesmen, prelates, and pop stars, and our political leaders' mendacity and ability to simultaneously maintain wholly inconsistent and contradictory positions is not taken as an indication that they are deranged.
This passage introduces several themes that resound throughout this volume. First, madness appears in many guises: These states, which collectively comprise the category of human experience labeled mental illness, have little in common with one another—schizophrenia, for example, bears virtually no resemblance to major depression— except in being extreme, troublesome, and socially inappropriate.
This hodgepodge quality means that the concept of mental illness is often too amorphous to be usefiil except as a way of speaking about the conglomerate subject matter of psychiatry.Study LMFT Exam flash cards flashcards from Michael L.
on StudyBlue. -open currently closed communication, and resolve triangels in the extended family. parts emerge to keep the person functional and safe, or to maintain control of their inner and . The partner-guided pain management training protocol was a three-session intervention conducted in patients’ homes that integrated educational information about cancer pain with systematic training of patients and partners in cognitive and behavioral pain coping skills.
Perhaps this difference in pass rates for the structural section is because therapists in private clinics have greater autonomy in establishing procedures for assessment and communication with parents, as well as greater control of space usage and equipment purchases, than those working in educational or medical settings.
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WWBTK # Using Functional Communication Training to Replace Challenging Behavior. These investigators examined resurgence during functional communication training (FCT), in which problem behavior was placed on extinction and alternative behavior of stimulus control decreased gradually over time.
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