An introduction to the history of the islamic world

Enjoy the Famous Daily Islam: All three have begun within a small area of southwest Asia. First Judaismsomewhere in the region stretching up from the Red Sea to Palestine; then Christianity at the northern end of this area; and finally Islam to the south, in Mecca, close to the Red Sea.

An introduction to the history of the islamic world

An introduction to the history of the islamic world

Jabir ibn Hayyan Latinized name, Geber. First chemist known to produce sulfuric acidas well as many other chemicals and instruments. Wrote on adding color to glass by adding small quantities of metallic oxides to the glass, such as manganese dioxide. This was a new advance in glass industry unknown in antiquity.

Ninth century[ edit ] The Conica of Apollonius of Perga"the great geometer", translated into Arabic in the ninth century c. There Greek and Indian mathematical and astronomy works are translated into Arabic. Planetariumartificial crystals. According to one account written seven centuries after his death, Ibn Firnas was injured during an elevated winged trial flight.

Thabit ibn Qurra Latinized, Thebit. Discovered a theorem which enables pairs of amicable numbers to be found. Al-Razi wrote on Naft naphta or petroleum and its distillates in his book " Kitab sirr al-asrar " book of the secret of secrets.

The location where the meat took the longest to rot was the one he chose for building the hospital. Advocated that patients not be told their real condition so that fear or despair do not affect the healing process. Wrote on alkalicaustic sodasoap and glycerine.

Gave descriptions of equipment processes and methods in his book Kitab al-Asrar book of secrets in Tenth century[ edit ] By this century, three systems of counting are used in the Arab world.

An introduction to the history of the islamic world

Finger-reckoning arithmetic, with numerals written entirely in words, used by the business community; the sexagesimal systema remnant originating with the Babylonianswith numerals denoted by letters of the arabic alphabet and used by Arab mathematicians in astronomical work; and the Indian numeral systemwhich was used with various sets of symbols.

Its arithmetic at first required the use of a dust board a sort of handheld blackboard because "the methods required moving the numbers around in the calculation and rubbing some out as the calculation proceeded.

Modified arithmetic methods for the Indian numeral system to make it possible for pen and paper use. Hitherto, doing calculations with the Indian numerals necessitated the use of a dust board as noted earlier. Wrote several treatises using the finger-counting system of arithmetic, and was also an expert on the Indian numerals system.

About the Indian system he wrote: Abul Hasan Ali Al-Masudiwrote on the reaction of alkali water with zaj vitriol water giving sulfuric acid.Eventually, the Umayyad Dynasty emerged as the rulers, with Abd al-Malik completing the Dome of the Rock, one of the earliest surviving Islamic monuments, in /2 C.E.

The Umayyads reigned until /50 C.E., when they were overthrown. The Abbasid Dynasty assumed the Caliphate and ruled large sections of the Islamic world. This timeline of science and engineering in the Islamic world covers the time period from the eighth century AD to the introduction of European science to the Islamic world in the nineteenth century.

All year dates are given according to . In this article, we use the phrase “Arts of the Islamic World” to emphasize that the art discussed was created in a world where Islam was a dominant religion or a major cultural force but was not necessarily religious art.

Muhammad and the Muslim era: from The people of Yathrib, a prosperous oasis, welcome Muhammad and his followers.

As a result, the move from Mecca in comes to seem the beginning of Islam. The Muslim era dates from the Hegira - Arabic for . Introduction. The term “Islamic philosophy” is in itself controversial, since there are many ways of identifying the discipline.

It is difficult to argue that Islamic philosophy can be carried out only by Muslims, as there were many Christians and Jews who were definitely committed to many of the techniques and principles of Islamic philosophy without .

The Muslim world was both the prize and the agent of the new cold war conflicts, which perpetuated the logic of involvement and interference introduced in the nineteenth century. At the same time, migratory movements gave birth to a “European” Islam within the former colonial metropolises.

BBC - Religion: Islam