In order to carry out correct behaviour—that is to say, correct in relation to the survival of the individual—humans have developed innate drives, desires, and emotions and the ability to remember and learn. Such are angerpity, fear and the like, with their opposites. Some emotions are very specific, insofar as they concern a particular person, object, or situation.
The Passion and Reason 15 The book Passion and Reason provides clear definitions and descriptions of 15 separate emotions. Fright — Concern for a future specific unpleasant event. Anxiety — Concern for an unidentified unpleasant event. Guilt — You have a standard and I did not meet it. The Rationalized 22 describes these 22 distinct emotions in an organized structure: Appraisal of an event: Joy — contented, cheerful, delighted, ecstatic, elated, euphoric, feeling good, glad, happy, joyful, jubilant, pleasantly surprised, pleased — Pleased by the appraisal of an event Distress — depressed, distressed, displeased, dissatisfied, distraught, feeling bad, feeling uncomfortable, grief, homesick, lonely, lovesick, miserable, regret, sad, shock, uneasy, unhappy, upset — displeased by the appraisal of an event Fortune of others: Love — adore, affection, attracted-to, like, love — Liking an appealing object Hate — aversion, detest, disgustdislike, hate, loathe, repelled-by, revulsion — Disliking an unappealing object Appraisal of a possible future prospective event: Hope — anticipation, excitement, expectancy, hope, hopeful, looking forward to — Pleased about a prospective desirable event Fear — apprehensive, anxious, cowering, dread, fear, fright, nervous, petrified, scared, terrified, timid, worried — Displeased about a prospective undesirable event Satisfaction — gratification, hopes-realized, satisfaction — Pleased about an confirmed desirable event Relief — relief — Pleased about a disconfirmed undesirable event Fears-confirmed — fears-confirmed, worst fears realized — Displeased about a confirmed undesirable event Disappointment — dashed-hopes, despair, disappointment, frustration, heartbroken — Displeased about a disconfirmed desirable event Compound Emotions: Safety anxietyapprehension, nervousness, concern, consternation, misgiving, wariness, qualm, edginess, dread, fright, terror and in the extreme cases phobia and panic.
Justice fury, outrage, resentment, wrath, exasperation, indignation, vexation, acrimony, animosity, annoyance, irritability, hostility, and perhaps these are manifest in the extreme as hatred and violence. Loss grief, sorrow, cheerlessness, gloom, melancholy, self-pity, loneliness, dejection, despair, and depression in the extreme case.
Gain happiness, joyreliefcontentment, bliss, delight, amusement, pridesensual pleasure, thrill, rapture, gratification, satisfaction, euphoria, whimsy, ecstasy, and at the far edge, mania. Attraction acceptance, friendliness, trustkindness, affinity, devotion, adoration, infatuation, and agape.
Repulsion contemptdistain, scorn, abhorrence, aversion, distaste, and revulsion Surprise: Attention shock, astonishment, amazement, and wonder Shame: Self-control guiltembarrassment, chagrin, remorse, humiliationregret, mortification, and contrition.
Flow — The absence of emotion or self-consciousness. Ambivalence — Multiple, simultaneous, conflicting emotions. It is likely that the variation and discrepancies among these lists result from a reification fallacy.
Non-Emotions In his book, Emotion and AdaptationRichard Lazarus lists several mental states that may be emotion related, but are not themselves actual emotions. The list includes the complex states of: Other mental states, such as bored, alert, drowsy, and trance are also not emotions.Because cells in the brain are constantly transferring information and triggering responses, there are dozens of areas of the brain at least peripherally involved in fear.
But research has discovered that certain parts of the brain play central roles in .
The view that there is a limited set of emotions (eg, fear, anger, in contrast to fear, where the danger is present and imminent. amygdala. 75 Recent studies in primates also suggest that the amygdala is involved in mediating some acute unconditioned fear responses in rhesus monkeys.
Time. Time is what a clock is used to measure. Information about time tells the durations of events, and when they occur, and which events happen before which others, so time has a very significant role in the universe's organization.
Fear in human beings may occur in response to a specific Robert Plutchik, and Paul Ekman have suggested that there is only a small set of basic or innate emotions and that fear is one of them.
This hypothesized set includes such A study from provided brain imaging evidence that human responses to fear chemosignals may be. The proper development and functioning of emotions allow people to live well and to be happy.
Love, respect, and compassion, for example, are the essential emotional ingredients of . Risk is the possibility of losing something of value. Values (such as physical health, social status, emotional well-being, or financial wealth) can be gained or lost when taking risk resulting from a given action or inaction, foreseen or unforeseen (planned or not planned).Risk can also be defined as the intentional interaction with uncertainty.
|Preliminaries||Lips stretched horizontally, Coping We cope with fear by trying to flee or escape from the threat, fighting back, or focusing on ways to eliminate or reduce the threat. It helps to relax when the threat is not immediate.|